MySQL查看字符集和校对规则

在《MySQL字符集和校对规则详解》一节中我们了解了 MySQL 的字符集和校对规则,本节主要介绍查看字符集和校对规则的几种方法。

在 MySQL 中,查看可用字符集的命令和执行过程如下:
mysql> SHOW CHARACTER set;
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| Charset  | Description                     | Default collation   | Maxlen |
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| big5     | Big5 Traditional Chinese        | big5_chinese_ci     |      2 |
| dec8     | DEC West European               | dec8_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| cp850    | DOS West European               | cp850_general_ci    |      1 |
| hp8      | HP West European                | hp8_english_ci      |      1 |
| koi8r    | KOI8-R Relcom Russian           | koi8r_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin1   | cp1252 West European            | latin1_swedish_ci   |      1 |
| latin2   | ISO 8859-2 Central European     | latin2_general_ci   |      1 |
| swe7     | 7bit Swedish                    | swe7_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| ascii    | US ASCII                        | ascii_general_ci    |      1 |
| ujis     | EUC-JP Japanese                 | ujis_japanese_ci    |      3 |
| sjis     | Shift-JIS Japanese              | sjis_japanese_ci    |      2 |
| hebrew   | ISO 8859-8 Hebrew               | hebrew_general_ci   |      1 |
| tis620   | TIS620 Thai                     | tis620_thai_ci      |      1 |
| euckr    | EUC-KR Korean                   | euckr_korean_ci     |      2 |
| koi8u    | KOI8-U Ukrainian                | koi8u_general_ci    |      1 |
| gb2312   | GB2312 Simplified Chinese       | gb2312_chinese_ci   |      2 |
| greek    | ISO 8859-7 Greek                | greek_general_ci    |      1 |
| cp1250   | Windows Central European        | cp1250_general_ci   |      1 |
| gbk      | GBK Simplified Chinese          | gbk_chinese_ci      |      2 |
| latin5   | ISO 8859-9 Turkish              | latin5_turkish_ci   |      1 |
| armscii8 | ARMSCII-8 Armenian              | armscii8_general_ci |      1 |
| utf8     | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8_general_ci     |      3 |
| ucs2     | UCS-2 Unicode                   | ucs2_general_ci     |      2 |
| cp866    | DOS Russian                     | cp866_general_ci    |      1 |
| keybcs2  | DOS Kamenicky Czech-Slovak      | keybcs2_general_ci  |      1 |
| macce    | Mac Central European            | macce_general_ci    |      1 |
| macroman | Mac West European               | macroman_general_ci |      1 |
| cp852    | DOS Central European            | cp852_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin7   | ISO 8859-13 Baltic              | latin7_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf8mb4  | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8mb4_general_ci  |      4 |
| cp1251   | Windows Cyrillic                | cp1251_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf16    | UTF-16 Unicode                  | utf16_general_ci    |      4 |
| utf16le  | UTF-16LE Unicode                | utf16le_general_ci  |      4 |
| cp1256   | Windows Arabic                  | cp1256_general_ci   |      1 |
| cp1257   | Windows Baltic                  | cp1257_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf32    | UTF-32 Unicode                  | utf32_general_ci    |      4 |
| binary   | Binary pseudo charset           | binary              |      1 |
| geostd8  | GEOSTD8 Georgian                | geostd8_general_ci  |      1 |
| cp932    | SJIS for Windows Japanese       | cp932_japanese_ci   |      2 |
| eucjpms  | UJIS for Windows Japanese       | eucjpms_japanese_ci |      3 |
| gb18030  | China National Standard GB18030 | gb18030_chinese_ci  |      4 |
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
41 rows in set (0.02 sec)
其中:
  • 第一列(Charset)为字符集名称;
  • 第二列(Description)为字符集描述;
  • 第三列(Default collation)为字符集的默认校对规则;
  • 第四列(Maxlen)表示字符集中一个字符占用的最大字节数。

常用的字符集如下:
  • latin1 支持西欧字符、希腊字符等。
  • gbk 支持中文简体字符。
  • big5 支持中文繁体字符。
  • utf8 几乎支持所有国家的字符。

也可以通过查询 information_schema.character_set 表中的记录,来查看 MySQL 支持的字符集。SQL 语句和执行过程如下:
mysql> SELECT * FROM information_schema.character_sets;
+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------------------+--------+
| CHARACTER_SET_NAME | DEFAULT_COLLATE_NAME | DESCRIPTION                     | MAXLEN |
+--------------------+----------------------+---------------------------------+--------+
| big5               | big5_chinese_ci      | Big5 Traditional Chinese        |      2 |
| dec8               | dec8_swedish_ci      | DEC West European               |      1 |
| cp850              | cp850_general_ci     | DOS West European               |      1 |
| hp8                | hp8_english_ci       | HP West European                |      1 |
......

可以使用 SHOW COLLATION LIKE '***'; 命令来查看相关字符集的校对规则。
mysql> SHOW COLLATION LIKE 'gbk%';
+----------------+---------+----+---------+----------+---------+
| Collation      | Charset | Id | Default | Compiled | Sortlen |
+----------------+---------+----+---------+----------+---------+
| gbk_chinese_ci | gbk     | 28 | Yes     | Yes      |       1 |
| gbk_bin        | gbk     | 87 |         | Yes      |       1 |
+----------------+---------+----+---------+----------+---------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
上面运行结果为 GBK 字符集所对应的校对规则,其中 gbk_chinese_ci 是默认的校对规则,对大小写不敏感。而 gbk_bin 按照二进制编码的值进行比较,对大小写敏感。

也可以通过查询 information_schema.COLLATIONS 表中的记录,来查看 MySQL 中可用的校对规则。SQL 语句和执行过程如下:
mysql> SELECT * FROM information_schema.COLLATIONS;
+--------------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
| COLLATION_NAME           | CHARACTER_SET_NAME | ID  | IS_DEFAULT | IS_COMPILED | SORTLEN |
+--------------------------+--------------------+-----+------------+-------------+---------+
| big5_chinese_ci          | big5               |   1 | Yes        | Yes         |       1 |
| big5_bin                 | big5               |  84 |            | Yes         |       1 |
| dec8_swedish_ci          | dec8               |   3 | Yes        | Yes         |       1 |
| dec8_bin                 | dec8               |  69 |            | Yes         |       1 |
| cp850_general_ci         | cp850              |   4 | Yes        | Yes         |       1 |
| cp850_bin                | cp850              |  80 |            | Yes         |       1 |
......

例 1

分别指定“A”和“a”按照 gbk_chinese_ci 和 gbk_bin 校对规则进行比较。SQL 语句和运行结果如下:
mysql> SELECT CASE WHEN 'A' COLLATE gbk_chinese_ci = 'a' COLLATE gbk_chinese_ci then 1
    -> else 0 end;
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CASE WHEN 'A' COLLATE gbk_chinese_ci = 'a' COLLATE gbk_chinese_ci then 1
else 0 end |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                   1 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

mysql> SELECT CASE WHEN 'A' COLLATE gbk_bin = 'a' COLLATE gbk_bin then 1
    -> else 0 end;
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| CASE WHEN 'A' COLLATE gbk_bin = 'a' COLLATE gbk_bin then 1
else 0 end |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                     0 |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
由于 gbk_chinese_ci 校对规则忽略大小写,所以认为两个“A“和“a”是相同的。 gbk_bin 校对规则不忽略大小写,则认为两个字符是不同的。

在实际应用中,我们应事先确认应用需要按照什么样方式排序,是否区分大小写,然后选择相应的校对规则。

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