首页 > 编程笔记 > Java笔记 阅读:234

使用状态机(Spring Statemachine)实现订单状态流转控制

在电商平台中,一个订单会有多种状态,临时单、已下单、待支付、已支付、待发货、待收货、已完成等等。每一种状态都和变化前的状态以及执行的操作有关。

比如,用户将商品加入购物车后,后台会生成一个所谓的“临时单”。因为用户还没有点击下单,所以这个订单实际上还没有生成。只有当用户下单后,这个“临时单”才会转化为一个“待支付的订单”。

以上过程中只有将一个处于“临时单”状态的订单执行下单操作,才能得到一个状态为“待支付”的订单。 即一个前置状态+一个恰当的操作,才能流转订单的状态。在这个过程中如果使用硬编码,我们就需要一系列的 if-else 语句来检查订单的当前状态、可执行操作以及这两个组合得到的下一个应该被流转的状态值。如果订单的状态流转很复杂,代码逻辑就会很复杂,可读性低,后期维护困难。

处理以上问题,我们可以使用状态设计模式来处理。对应到实践,就是状态机。

状态机是状态模式的一种应用,相当于上下文角色的一个升级版。在工作流或游戏等各种系统中有大量使用,如各种工作流引擎,它几乎是状态机的子集和实现,封装状态的变化规则。状态机可以帮助开发者简化状态控制的开发过程,让状态机结构更加层次化。

Spring 提供了一个很好的解决方案,Spring Statemachine(状态机)是应用程序开发人员在 Spring 应用程序中使用状态机概念的框架。

下面用 Spring 状态机模拟订单状态流转的过程,步骤如下。

1)添加依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.statemachine</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-statemachine-core</artifactId>
    <version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>

2)创建订单实体类

package net.biancheng.c.entity;
public class Order {
    private int id;
    private OrderStatus status;

    public void setStatus(OrderStatus status) {
        this.status = status;
    }

    public OrderStatus getStatus() {
        return status;
    }

    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "订单号:" + id + ", 订单状态:" + status;
    }
}

3)创建订单状态枚举类和状态转换枚举类。

package net.biancheng.c.utils;
/**
* 订单状态
*/
public enum OrderStatus {
    // 待支付,待发货,待收货,已完成
    WAIT_PAYMENT, WAIT_DELIVER, WAIT_RECEIVE, FINISH;
}

package net.biancheng.c.utils;
/**
* 订单状态改变事件
*/
public enum OrderStatusChangeEvent {
    // 支付,发货,确认收货
    PAYED, DELIVERY, RECEIVED;
}

4)添加状态流配置

package net.biancheng.c.utils;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.statemachine.StateMachineContext;
import org.springframework.statemachine.StateMachinePersist;
import org.springframework.statemachine.config.EnableStateMachine;
import org.springframework.statemachine.config.StateMachineConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.statemachine.config.builders.StateMachineStateConfigurer;
import org.springframework.statemachine.config.builders.StateMachineTransitionConfigurer;
import org.springframework.statemachine.persist.DefaultStateMachinePersister;
import org.springframework.statemachine.support.DefaultStateMachineContext;

import java.util.EnumSet;

/**
* 订单状态机配置
*/
@Configuration
@EnableStateMachine(name = "orderStateMachine")
public class OrderStateMachineConfig extends StateMachineConfigurerAdapter<OrderStatus, OrderStatusChangeEvent> {

    /**
     * 配置状态
     *
     * @param states
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public void configure(StateMachineStateConfigurer<OrderStatus, OrderStatusChangeEvent> states) throws Exception {
        states
                .withStates()
                .initial(OrderStatus.WAIT_PAYMENT)
                .states(EnumSet.allOf(OrderStatus.class));
    }

    /**
     * 配置状态转换事件关系
     *
     * @param transitions
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public void configure(StateMachineTransitionConfigurer<OrderStatus, OrderStatusChangeEvent> transitions) throws Exception {
        transitions
                .withExternal().source(OrderStatus.WAIT_PAYMENT).target(OrderStatus.WAIT_DELIVER).event(OrderStatusChangeEvent.PAYED)
                .and()
                .withExternal().source(OrderStatus.WAIT_DELIVER).target(OrderStatus.WAIT_RECEIVE).event(OrderStatusChangeEvent.DELIVERY)
                .and()
                .withExternal().source(OrderStatus.WAIT_RECEIVE).target(OrderStatus.FINISH).event(OrderStatusChangeEvent.RECEIVED);
    }

    /**
     * 持久化配置
     * 实际使用中,可以配合redis等,进行持久化操作
     *
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    public DefaultStateMachinePersister persister() {
        return new DefaultStateMachinePersister<>(new StateMachinePersist<Object, Object, Order>() {
            @Override
            public void write(StateMachineContext<Object, Object> context, Order order) throws Exception {
                //此处并没有进行持久化操作
            }

            @Override
            public StateMachineContext<Object, Object> read(Order order) throws Exception {
                //此处直接获取order中的状态,其实并没有进行持久化读取操作
                return new DefaultStateMachineContext(order.getStatus(), null, null, null);
            }
        });
    }
}

5)添加订单状态监听器

package net.biancheng.c.utils;

import org.springframework.messaging.Message;
import org.springframework.statemachine.annotation.OnTransition;
import org.springframework.statemachine.annotation.WithStateMachine;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component("orderStateListener")
@WithStateMachine(name = "orderStateMachine")
public class OrderStateListenerImpl {

    @OnTransition(source = "WAIT_PAYMENT", target = "WAIT_DELIVER")
    public boolean payTransition(Message<OrderStatusChangeEvent> message) {
        Order order = (Order) message.getHeaders().get("order");
        order.setStatus(OrderStatus.WAIT_DELIVER);
        System.out.println("支付,状态机反馈信息:" + message.getHeaders().toString());
        return true;
    }

    @OnTransition(source = "WAIT_DELIVER", target = "WAIT_RECEIVE")
    public boolean deliverTransition(Message<OrderStatusChangeEvent> message) {
        Order order = (Order) message.getHeaders().get("order");
        order.setStatus(OrderStatus.WAIT_RECEIVE);
        System.out.println("发货,状态机反馈信息:" + message.getHeaders().toString());
        return true;
    }

    @OnTransition(source = "WAIT_RECEIVE", target = "FINISH")
    public boolean receiveTransition(Message<OrderStatusChangeEvent> message) {
        Order order = (Order) message.getHeaders().get("order");
        order.setStatus(OrderStatus.FINISH);
        System.out.println("收货,状态机反馈信息:" + message.getHeaders().toString());
        return true;
    }
}

6)创建 OrderService 接口。

package net.biancheng.c.service;

import net.biancheng.c.entity.Order;
import java.util.Map;

public interface OrderService {
    //创建订单
    Order create();

    //发起支付
    Order pay(int id);

    //订单发货
    Order deliver(int id);

    //订单收货
    Order receive(int id);

    //获取所有订单信息
    Map<Integer, Order> getOrders();
}

7)在 Service 业务逻辑中应用。

package net.biancheng.c.serviceImpl;

import net.biancheng.c.entity.Order;
import net.biancheng.c.service.OrderService;
import net.biancheng.c.utils.OrderStatus;
import net.biancheng.c.utils.OrderStatusChangeEvent;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.messaging.Message;
import org.springframework.messaging.support.MessageBuilder;
import org.springframework.statemachine.StateMachine;
import org.springframework.statemachine.persist.StateMachinePersister;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

@Service("orderService")
public class OrderServiceImpl implements OrderService {

    @Autowired
    private StateMachine<OrderStatus, OrderStatusChangeEvent> orderStateMachine;

    @Autowired
    private StateMachinePersister<OrderStatus, OrderStatusChangeEvent, Order> persister;

    private int id = 1;
    private Map<Integer, Order> orders = new HashMap<>();

    public Order create() {
        Order order = new Order();
        order.setStatus(OrderStatus.WAIT_PAYMENT);
        order.setId(id++);
        orders.put(order.getId(), order);
        return order;
    }

    public Order pay(int id) {
        Order order = orders.get(id);
        System.out.println("线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " 尝试支付,订单号:" + id);
        Message message = MessageBuilder.withPayload(OrderStatusChangeEvent.PAYED).setHeader("order", order).build();
        if (!sendEvent(message, order)) {
            System.out.println("线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " 支付失败, 状态异常,订单号:" + id);
        }
        return orders.get(id);
    }

    public Order deliver(int id) {
        Order order = orders.get(id);
        System.out.println("线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " 尝试发货,订单号:" + id);
        if (!sendEvent(MessageBuilder.withPayload(OrderStatusChangeEvent.DELIVERY).setHeader("order", order).build(), orders.get(id))) {
            System.out.println("线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " 发货失败,状态异常,订单号:" + id);
        }
        return orders.get(id);
    }

    public Order receive(int id) {
        Order order = orders.get(id);
        System.out.println("线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " 尝试收货,订单号:" + id);
        if (!sendEvent(MessageBuilder.withPayload(OrderStatusChangeEvent.RECEIVED).setHeader("order", order).build(), orders.get(id))) {
            System.out.println("线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " 收货失败,状态异常,订单号:" + id);
        }
        return orders.get(id);
    }

    public Map<Integer, Order> getOrders() {
        return orders;
    }

    /**
     * 发送订单状态转换事件
     *
     * @param message
     * @param order
     * @return
     */
    private synchronized boolean sendEvent(Message<OrderStatusChangeEvent> message, Order order) {
        boolean result = false;
        try {
            orderStateMachine.start();
            //尝试恢复状态机状态
            persister.restore(orderStateMachine, order);
            //添加延迟用于线程安全测试
            Thread.sleep(1000);
            result = orderStateMachine.sendEvent(message);
            //持久化状态机状态
            persister.persist(orderStateMachine, order);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            orderStateMachine.stop();
        }
        return result;
    }
}

8)编写客户端测试代码。

import net.biancheng.c.service.OrderService;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Test {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Thread.currentThread().setName("主线程");
        ConfigurableApplicationContext context = SpringApplication.run(Test.class, args);
        OrderService orderService = (OrderService) context.getBean("orderService");
        orderService.create();
        orderService.create();
        orderService.pay(1);
        new Thread("客户线程") {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                orderService.deliver(1);
                orderService.receive(1);
            }
        }.start();

        orderService.pay(2);
        orderService.deliver(2);
        orderService.receive(2);

        System.out.println("全部订单状态:" + orderService.getOrders());
    }
}
运行结果如下。

...
线程名称:主线程 尝试支付,订单号:2
线程名称:客户线程 尝试发货,订单号:1
2020-11-10 09:42:59.528  INFO 10796 --- [            主线程] o.s.s.support.LifecycleObjectSupport     : started org.springframework.statemachine.support.DefaultStateMachineExecutor@eb507b9
2020-11-10 09:42:59.528  INFO 10796 --- [            主线程] o.s.s.support.LifecycleObjectSupport     : started FINISH WAIT_PAYMENT WAIT_RECEIVE WAIT_DELIVER  / WAIT_PAYMENT / uuid=5aa411ad-212a-4f2a-8afd-fc1009def5d5 / id=null
2020-11-10 09:42:59.528  INFO 10796 --- [            主线程] o.s.s.support.LifecycleObjectSupport     : stopped org.springframework.statemachine.support.DefaultStateMachineExecutor@eb507b9
2020-11-10 09:42:59.528  INFO 10796 --- [            主线程] o.s.s.support.LifecycleObjectSupport     : stopped FINISH WAIT_PAYMENT WAIT_RECEIVE WAIT_DELIVER  /  / uuid=5aa411ad-212a-4f2a-8afd-fc1009def5d5 / id=null
2020-11-10 09:42:59.528  INFO 10796 --- [            主线程] o.s.s.support.LifecycleObjectSupport     : started org.springframework.statemachine.support.DefaultStateMachineExecutor@eb507b9
2020-11-10 09:42:59.528  INFO 10796 --- [            主线程] o.s.s.support.LifecycleObjectSupport     : started FINISH WAIT_PAYMENT WAIT_RECEIVE WAIT_DELIVER  / WAIT_PAYMENT / uuid=5aa411ad-212a-4f2a-8afd-fc1009def5d5 / id=null
支付,状态机反馈信息:{order=订单号:2, 订单状态:WAIT_DELIVER, id=13bd1f00-21e1-cab4-3b2a-af8a4a82507a, timestamp=1604972579527}
...

由于运行结果篇幅过长,以上只贴出了部分运行结果。通过本节的真实业务案例,相信小伙伴们对状态模式已经有非常深刻的理解了。

编程帮,一个分享编程知识的公众号。跟着站长一起学习,每天都有进步。

通俗易懂,深入浅出,一篇文章只讲一个知识点。

文章不深奥,不需要钻研,在公交、在地铁、在厕所都可以阅读,随时随地涨姿势。

文章不涉及代码,不烧脑细胞,人人都可以学习。

当你决定关注「编程帮」,你已然超越了90%的程序员!

编程帮二维码
微信扫描二维码关注

所有教程

优秀文章